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Foods on the FODMAP Diet

High FODMAP Foods and Low FODMAP Foods

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Updated July 10, 2014

Written or reviewed by a board-certified physician. See About.com's Medical Review Board.

Foods on the FODMAP Diet

Researchers from Australia have come up with a novel approach for IBS treatment, that of having patients follow a low FODMAP diet as a way to reduce IBS symptoms. They have coined the term FODMAPs to describe a collection of short-chain carbohydrates found in many common foods. FODMAPs stands for Fermentable Oligo-, Di- and Mono-saccharides, and Polyols.

The FODMAP theory holds that consuming foods high in FODMAPs results in increased volume of liquid and gas in the small and large intestine, resulting in distention and symptoms such as abdominal pain and gas and bloating. The theory proposes that following a low FODMAP diet should result in a decrease in digestive symptoms. The theory further holds that there is a cumulative effect of these foods on symptoms. In other words, eating foods with varying FODMAP values at the same time will add up, resulting in symptoms that you might not experience if you ate the food in isolation. This might explain the mixed results of studies that have evaluated the effects of fructose and lactose, two types of carbohydrates, on IBS. Ongoing research is being conducted as to the accuracy of the FODMAP theory and the effectiveness of the diet for IBS.

Below you will find lists of common high and low FODMAP foods. This list is based on the most updated research from Monash University and may change over time.  In addition, you may have your own individual sensitivities to foods. These examples are given for informational purposes only

If you are interested in following a low FODMAP diet, it is essential to work individually with a licensed nutritionist (See: Finding a FODMAP Dietician). There are risks to devising your own diet. It is tempting to pick and choose certain items based on your personal preference which could result in continued symptoms due to a lack of strict compliance to a sanctioned low FODMAP diet. Working with a trained nutritionist will also help to ensure that you receive adequate and balanced nutrition including a healthy intake of dietary fiber.

As with any new treatment or dietary approach, it is always best to discuss the issue with your own personal physician.

Common High FODMAP Foods

Fruits:

  • Apples
  • Apricots
  • Blackberries
  • Cherries
  • Grapefruit
  • Mango
  • Pears
  • Nectarines
  • Peaches
  • Pears
  • Plums and prunes
  • Pomegranates
  • Watermelon
  • High concentration of fructose from canned fruit, dried fruit or fruit juice

Grains
Level of FODMAPs is increased when these foods are eaten in large amounts:

  • Barley
  • Bulgur
  • Cous cous
  • Farro
  • Rye
  • Semolina
  • Wheat

Lactose-Containing Foods

  • Buttermilk
  • Cream
  • Custard
  • Ice cream
  • Margarine
  • Milk (cow, goat, sheep)
  • Soft cheese, including cottage cheese and ricotta
  • Yogurt (regular and Greek)

Dairy Substitutes

  • Almond milk
  • Soy milk (U.S.)

Legumes

  • Baked beans
  • Black-eyed peas
  • Butter beans
  • Chickpeas
  • Lentils
  • Kidney beans
  • Lima beans
  • Soybeans
  • Split peas

Sweeteners

  • Agave
  • Fructose
  • High fructose corn syrup
  • Honey
  • Isomalt
  • Maltitol
  • Mannitol
  • Molasses
  • Sorbitol
  • Xylitol

Vegetables

  • Artichokes
  • Asparagus
  • Avocado
  • Beets
  • Broccoli
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Cauliflower
  • Celery
  • Corn
  • Garlic
  • Leeks
  • Mushrooms
  • Okra
  • Onions
  • Peas
  • Scallions (white parts)
  • Shallots
  • Sugar snap peas
  • Snow peas

Common Low FODMAP Foods

Fruits

  • Banana
  • Blueberry
  • Cantaloupe 
  • Grapes
  • Honeydew melon
  • Kiwi
  • Lemon
  • Lime
  • Mandarin oranges
  • Olives
  • Orange
  • Papaya (paw paw)
  • Pineapple
  • Raspberry
  • Rhubarb
  • Strawberry
  • Tangelo

Sweeteners

  • Artificial sweeteners that do not end in -ol
  • Brown sugar
  • Glucose
  • Maple syrup
  • Powdered sugar
  • Sugar (sucrose)

Dairy and Alternatives

  • Butter
  • Coconut milk
  • Hard cheese, such as  brie, camembert, mozzarella, Parmesan
  • Lactose-free products, such as lactose-free milk, ice cream and yogurt
  • Gelato
  • Rice milk

Vegetables

  • Arugula (rocket lettuce)
  • Bamboo shoots
  • Bell peppers
  • Bok choy
  • Carrots
  • Celeriac
  • Common Cabbage
  • Eggplant
  • Endive
  • Fennel
  • Green beans
  • Kale
  • Lettuce
  • Parsley
  • Parsnip
  • Potato
  • Radicchio 
  • Scallions (green parts only)
  • Spinach, baby
  • Squash
  • Sweet potato
  • Tomato
  • Turnip
  • Water chestnut
  • Zucchini

Grains

Nuts

  • Almonds (limit 10)
  • Brazil Nuts
  • Hazelnuts (limit 10)
  • Macadamia nuts
  • Peanuts
  • Pecan
  • Pine nuts
  • Walnuts

Seeds

  • Caraway
  • Chia
  • Pumpkin
  • Sesame
  • Sunflower

Protein Sources

  • Beef
  • Chicken
  • Eggs
  • Fish
  • Lamb
  • Pork
  • Shellfish
  • Tofu and tempeh
  • Turkey

For a printable chart of low FODMAPs foods, click here.

Essential Reading from Dr. Bolen, Your IBS Expert:

Sources:

Barrett, J. & Gibson, P. "Clinical Ramifications of Malabsorption of Fructose and Other Short-Chain Carbohydrates" Practical Gastroenterology 2007 XXXI:51-65

Gibson, P. & Shepherd, S. "Evidence-based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: The FODMAP approach" Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2010 25:252-258.

"Low FODMAP Diet" Shepherd Works Web Site. Accessed September 27, 2010.

DISCLAIMER: The information contained on this site is for educational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for diagnosis or treatment rendered by a licensed physician. It is essential that you discuss with your doctor any symptoms or medical problems that you may be experiencing.

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